I.             Thermochemistry
               A.            Heat during phase changes
               B.            Heat during temperature changes

II.            Enthalpy
               A.    Heat of reaction
               B.    Molar heat of formation

III.          Entropy

IV.          Free Energy
               A.            Spontaneous & nonspontaneous reactions
               B.            Enthalpy, entropy, & temperature's effects on spontaneity

V.            Reaction Pathway Diagrams
               A.            Activation energy
               B.            Catalyst

VI.    Rate of Reactions
                A.            Collision theory

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 North Carolina Essential Standards and Clarifying Objectives:

Chm. 2.1  Understand the relationship among pressure, temperature, volume, and phase.

            2.1.2  Explain heating and cooling curves (heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, heat, melting point, and boiling point).

•         Explain phase change calculations in terms of heat absorbed or released (endothermic vs. exothermic processes).


Chm. 2.2  Analyze chemical reactions in terms of quantities, product formation, and energy.

2.2.1  Explain the energy content of a chemical reaction.

•         Explain collision theory – molecules must collide in order to react, and they must collide in the correct or appropriate orientation and with sufficient energy to equal or exceed the activation energy.

•         Interpret potential energy diagrams for endothermic and exothermic reactions including reactants, products, and activated complex.

2.2.2  Analyze the evidence of chemical change.

•         Temperature change – Tie to endothermic/exothermic reaction. Express ΔH as (+) for endothermic and (–) for exothermic.


Chm. 3.1  Understand the factors affecting rate of reaction and chemical equilibrium.

3.1.1  Explain the factors that affect the rate of a reaction (temperature, concentration, particle size and presence of a catalyst).

•         Understand qualitatively that reaction rate is proportional to number of effective collisions.

•         Explain that nature of reactants can refer to their complexity and the number of bonds that must be broken and reformed in the course of reaction.

•         Explain how temperature (kinetic energy), concentration, and/or pressure affects the number of collisions.

•         Explain how increased surface area increases number of collisions.

•         Explain how a catalyst lowers the activation energy, so that at a given temperature, more molecules will have energy equal to or greater than the activation energy.

3.1.3  Infer the shift in equilibrium when a stress is applied to a chemical system (Le Chatelier’s Principle). 

•         Relate the shift that occurs in terms of the order/disorder of the system.


Chm. 3.2  Understand solutions and the solution process.

3.2.6  Explain the solution process.

•         Describe the energetics of the solution process as it occurs and the overall process as exothermic or endothermic.