UNIT 12 – SOLUTIONS

 

I.              Types of Mixtures

                A.            Suspensions

B.            Colloids

C.             Solutions

                1.             Compare to suspensions and colloids with respect to:

                                visible phases, settling, filtering, particle size, Tyndall Effect

                2.             Give examples

                3.             Define solute and solvent               

                4.             Describe and give examples of types of solutions based on state of matter

                                of solute and solvent

                5.             Describe saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated

                6.             Define solubility

                                a.             Solubility Curve graph analysis

                                b.             Solubility Curve graph interpretation

                8.             Effects of temperature and pressure on solubility

                9.             Factors affecting the rate of solution

                10.          Interpret the solubility rule “like dissolves like”

 

II.            Standard Solutions & Concentration

                A.            Molarity

                B.            Molality (Honors level only)

                C.             Dilutions

                D.            Boiling point elevation & freezing point depression (Honors level only)

 

III.           Solution Reactions

                A.            Electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions

                                1.             Define and write out dissociaton of ionic compounds

                                2.             Define and write out ionization of polar covalent compounds

                                3.             Describe simple dissolving of pure covalent compounds

                B.            Interpret solubility rules

                C.             Write out double replacement reactions in ionic form

                                1.             Predict precipitates using solubility rules

                                2.             Define and identify spectator ions

                                3.             Write overall net ionic equations

 

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North Carolina Essential Standards and Clarifying Objectives:

Chm. 2.1  Understand the relationship among pressure, temperature, volume, and phase.

            2.1.5  Explain the relationships among pressure, temperature, volume, and quantity of gas, both qualitative

                     and quantitative.

•         Apply general gas solubility characteristics.

 

Chm. 2.2  Analyze chemical reactions in terms of quantities, product formation, and energy.

            2.2.2  Analyze the evidence of chemical change.

•         Students should be able to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred based on precipitate formation (tie to solubility rules).

            2.2.3  Analyze the law of conservation of matter and how it applies to various types of chemical equations.

•         Write and balance net ionic equations for double replacement reactions.

•         Use the solubility rules to determine the precipitate in a double replacement reaction if a reaction occurs.

 

Chm. 3.2  Understand solutions and the solution process.

            3.2.1  Classify substances using the hydronium and hydroxide concentrations.

•         Differentiate between concentration (molarity) and strength (degree of dissociation). No calculation involved.

            3.2.3  Infer the quantitative nature of a solution.

•         Compute concentration (molarity) of solutions in moles per liter.

•         Calculate molarity given mass of solute and volume of solution.

•         Calculate mass of solute needed to create a solution of a given molarity and volume.

•         Solve dilution problems: M1V1 = M2V2.

             3.2.4  Summarize the properties of solutions.

•         Identify types of solutions (solid, liquid, gaseous, aqueous). 

•         Distinguish between electrolytic and nonelectrolytic solutions.

•         Summarize colligative properties (vapor pressure reduction, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmotic pressure).

            3.2.5  Interpret solubility diagrams.

•         Use graph of solubility vs. temperature to identify a substance based on solubility at a particular temperature.

•         Use graph to relate the degree of saturation of solutions to temperature.

            3.2.6  Explain the solution process.

•         Develop a conceptual model for the solution process with a cause and effect relationship involving forces of attraction between solute and solvent particles. A material is insoluble due to a lack of attraction between particles.

•         Explain solubility in terms of the nature of solute-solvent attraction, temperature and pressure (for gases).